The laser hit its targets-methyl fluoride and methyl bromide gas molecules in a vacuum chamber.
The solar cell materials were grown using metal solid-source molecular beam epitaxy under ultra-high vacuum rather than metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) - avoiding residual impurities from organic precursors.
Enlarge Laser beams are precisely aligned before being sent into the vacuum chamber.
We used an ultra-high vacuum chamber with an air pressure corresponding to a hundredth of a millionth of our atmosphere to shoot an ultra-short and intense laser pulse (hundred billions of billions more intense that sunlight on the Earth surface) onto a nitrogen gas.
For the intrinsic defects, the researchers used a process called "atomic layer deposition" placing the graphene membrane in a vacuum chamber, then pulsing in a hafnium-containing chemical that does not normally interact with graphene.
The force sensor is placed in the middle of an ultra-high vacuum chamber.
SemiTEq launches enhanced MBE system SemiTEq JSC of Saint-Petersburg, Russia, which designs and manufactures high-vacuum and ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) equipment including molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) deposition systems, has released an improved STE35 MBE system.
Lemay has more than 150 miles of the blue plastic crisscrossing her sugar bush, flowing from every maple into bigger tubing and finally into giant tanks inside the sugar house. A secondary set of vacuum tubing runs in tandem to help pull the sap from the trees, drastically increasing output.
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