A key innovation is encasing the printer in a nitrogen chamber, cutting exposure to oxygen and moisture, as well as cutting contamination with particles - notorious for diminishing OLED yields - by 10 times over current methods that use vacuum chambers.
The use of high-k dielectric films deposited through atomic layer deposition, primarily in batch furnaces, has intensified, particularly in the manufacture of memory devices and high-k metal gates (HKMG) in logic devices.
Insects coated with the material were able to survive up to two hours in a high vacuum the team reports.
Challenges included maintaining a high vacuum to guarantee the lifetime of the beam and working out how to inject both electrons and positrons.
Conductive coatings with TCOs are usually applied by means of high vacuum techniques.
With this method, a small sample of graphene is placed in an ultra-high vacuum chamber.
The researchers used a technology called molecular beam epitaxy, which involves heating up elements inside a vacuum chamber so that they condense onto a surface, to grow a layer of barium titanate on a block of germanium.
However, XPS requires a high vacuum to operate, which makes analyzing materials in liquid and gaseous environments difficult.
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